The 2002 Doha Declaration reaffirms that the TRIPS Agreement must not prevent Members from taking the necessary measures to protect public health. Despite this recognition, less developed countries have argued that flexible travel arrangements, such as compulsory licensing, are almost impossible to exercise. Less developed countries, in particular, cited their fleeing domestic manufacturing and technology industries as evidence of the brutality of politics. Since the entry into force of travel, it has been criticized by developing countries, scientists and non-governmental organizations. While some of these criticisms are directed at the WTO in general, many proponents of trade liberalization also view the TRIPS Agreement as bad policy. The effects of concentrating the wealth of TRIPS (the movement of money from people in developing countries to copyright and patent holders in developed countries) and the imposition of artificial scarcity on citizens of countries that would otherwise have had weaker intellectual property laws are common grounds for such criticism. Other criticisms have focused on TRIPS` failure to accelerate the flow of investment and technology to low-income countries, an advantage promoted by WTO members in the run-up to the agreement`s creation. World Bank statements suggest that the TRIPS Agreement has not led to a demonstrable acceleration of investment in low-income countries, although it may have done so for middle-income countries.  Long TRIPS patent terms have been investigated to unduly slow down generic substitutes market entry and competition. In particular, the illegality of preclinical studies or the submission of samples for approval until a patent expires has been accused of having led to the growth of a few multinationals rather than producers in developing countries.
The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is an international agreement between all member states of the World Trade Organization (WTO). It establishes minimum standards for the regulation of various forms of intellectual property (IP) by national governments, as applied to nationals of other WTO member states.  The TRIPS Agreement was negotiated at the end of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) between 1989 and 1990 and is administered by the WTO. In addition to the basic intellectual property standards created by the TRIPS Agreement, many countries have engaged in bilateral agreements aimed at introducing a higher standard of protection. This set of standards, known as TRIPS+ or TRIPS-Plus, can take many forms.  The general objectives of these agreements are as follows: The TRIPS Agreement is an agreement on minimum standards that allows Members to provide more comprehensive protection of intellectual property if they so wish. Members are free to determine the appropriate method for implementing the provisions of the Agreement in their own legal system and practice. .